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Critical Junctures:

From Empire to Republic (221 B.C.E. - 1911 A.D.)
  • Chinese empire takes poltical shape in 221 B.C.E.
    • small independent kingdoms become one under a single emporer
  • Over 12 different dynastic families ruled
    • Many geographic, cultural, and poltical changes
    • Imperialism lasted due to 5 factors
      • Confucianism supported the traditional order and obedience to the government
      • Created a bureaucracy of scholars
      • Strong and growing economy
      • Land lords and local governments worked with the empire to maintain order
      • Dominant force
        • "Middle Kingdom"
Revolution (1912-1949)
  • Republic of China established (January 1, 1912)
  • CCP is created
    • 1921
    • Nationalists vs. Communists
      • Nationalists founded by Chiang Kai-Shek
        • Would become the first president of the new China (still not the PRC)
      • Long March
        • 1934-1936
        • Chiang's supporters chased Mao's army across China
        • Future leaders were involved with the march
        • When Chiang had to deal with invading Japan, Mao became a hero and took over.
  • Themes of the Revolution
    • Nationalism
    • Creation of a new political community
    • Socio-economic development
Mao in Power (1949-1976)
  • Mao is president of the PRC
  • Collectivization of land (1953-1957)
  • Created a Soviet-style command economy (1953-1957)
  • Improved legal status of women and helped cure opium addiction
  • Creation of a centrally planned economy
  • One Hundred Flowers Movement
    • 1956
  • Anti-Rightist Campaign
    • 1957
  • Great Leap Forward
    • 1958-1960
  • Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
    • 1966-1976
Deng Xiaoping's Economic Policies (1977-1997)
  • Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of Chinese Communism
    • Led to capitalist policies and a more market economy infused with old Communist principles
      • International trade (open-door policy)
      • Emphasis on education through reforms
      • "Institutionalizing the Revolution" (Ethel Woods)
    • Four Modernizations
      • Industry
      • Agriculture
      • Science
      • Military
  • Tiananmen Square
    • 1989
1997-Present
  • Shift from Revolutionary leaders to Technocrats
    • Zahoo Ziyang is replaced by Jian Zemin.
    • Hu becomes president
    • (2008) Olympics
      • China as a global power

Important People:
  • Mao Zedong
    • Revolutionary Leader; 1st president; Creator of Mao Zedong Thought
  • Deng Xiaoping
    • Unofficial successor of Mao
    • Created current economic policies
  • Hu Jintao
    • Current President

Economic Policies
  • Under Mao
    • A command economy
    • Set quotas
    • Prices are controlled
    • State owns land
    • Five Year Plans
  • Under Deng
    • "It doesn't matter whether a cat is white or black, as long as it catches mice." - Deng
      • Ideology is less important than eocnomic goals
    • Authority
      • Decison making passed from bureaucrats to the individual
    • People had the opportunity to make more money and thus an incentive to work harder.
    • Release of most price controls
      • Today 80% of prices are not controlled
    • Limiting of state-owned enterprises
    • Destruction of the Iron-Rice Bowl
      • People are no longer guaranteed employment and benefits
    • Opened doors to foreign investment
    • Supports private businesses
      • Private ownership of land is still forbidden
    • Socialist market economy
    • Household Responsibility System
      • "Farmland is now contracted out for thirty years or more by the villages (which still technically own the land) to individual families, who take full charge of the production and marketing of crops.
    • Township and Village Enterprises (TVE'S)
      • Owned by local governments but operated outside of the state plans

All information in this section is from Kesselman

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