´╗┐Political Parties


´╗┐The denial of individual freedoms is a strong part of the Chinese government's foundation. All the same, with increased globalization comes an increased need to impress upon the world that China is guaranteeing the rights of its citizens. Reflecting this, the Chinese political system is compromised of nine political parties. Only of of those parties, however, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has any real power. The other eight parties are merely puppets of the CCP and are recognized as a farce by the American government.

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The Chinese Communist Party


  • Description

    • Uses Marxism, Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, and Deng Xiaoping Theory as its foundation
    • Strong ties to socialism
    • Open to economic growth (since 1979)
    • Adheres to four Cardinal Principles
      • adhere to a socialist road
      • adhere to the people's democratic dictatorship
      • adhere to Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought
      • adhere to the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party
  • Origin
    • Created in 1921
    • Came to power in 1949
    • Led the people in four revolutionary wars from 1919-1949
      • The Northern Expedition of Kuomintang-Communist cooperation (1924-1927)
      • The Agrarian Revolutionary War (1927-1937)
      • The War of Resistance against Against Japan (1937-1945)
      • The Chinese People's War of Liberation (1946-1949)
  • Party Members
    • 76 million members
    • 8% of the Chinese population over the age of 18
    • Type of people
      • Peasants (31.4%)
      • Managerial and technical personnel (22.4%)
      • Retirees (18.9%)
      • Industrial workers (10.1%)
      • Party and state cadres (7.5%)
      • Private entrepreneurs (5.1%)
      • Students (2.5%)
      • Military and armed police personnel (2.1%)
    • Women
      • 20%
  • More power than the other parties?
    • The CCP has considerably more power than the other parties
      • The other parties were created merely to supplement the CCP
      • They do not oppose the CCP in elections
      • They advise the CCP but have no real power
  • Run by the people or the government?
    • The CCP is run by the government
      • The party controls every aspect of government
      • CCP members are placed in key governemnt positions throughout the system to maintain supervision
      • Members of the Party Congress elect officials to the most powerful positions not the people

The Other Parties

Who Can Vote?

Level of participation in elections
  • The poor have high voting attendance
    • Villages are the only places that experience elections and the rich live in the urban cities
      • Thus the peasants vote
    • All men and women over the age of 18 are permitted to vote
      • The head of the household is allowed three proxy votes, so he can theoretically take his wife's vote
  • When did different sectors receive the right to vote?
    • Everyone gained the right to vote in 1987 with the creation of elections
  • Voter Turnout
    • Information is unavailable
    • International Idea that tracks voter turnout has no statistics on China

Elections

Elections are only held on the village level. Higher positions in the government are voted upon by members of the Communist Party who are part of the legislature. The people have no say in the matter. Village leaders and similar positions are elected by the people, but they are nominated by the CCP.
  • Frequency of elections
    • Chinese presidential elections are held every five years
      • Last election was March 2008
      • Next election will be March 2013
  • Level of free and fair in elections
    • Less than 20% of elections are free and fair
    • Vote buying is common
    • The ballot boxes are often fixed
      • Those that suggest foul play are beaten and jailed
    • Candidates without the support of the CCP do not have their name listed on the ballot and are forbidden from organizing rallies.
    • No independent parties are permitted
  • Direct and indirect
    • Most elections are indirect
      • The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China chooses political leaders for all of the higher positions
      • Usually choose from amongst themselves
      • Leaders of the executive and party leaders are chosen in this manner
      • All mayors and provincial leaders are also chosen indirectly
    • Some elections are direct
      • Most elections at the village level are direct
      • Prevents corruption
  • How are the winners decided?
    • Absolute majority vote within their electoral units
    • Winners must have the most votes
    • Winners must receive at least 1/3 of the vot
      • If no one wins at least 1/3 another election is held
  • Is there an electoral comission to determine fairness?
    • No; the elections are orchestrated by the CCP
    • The government is often responsible for fraudulent elections and no one holds them responsible

Notworthy Elections

  • Recent elections
    • There are no significante elections as top positions are filled through appointments
    • Elections for the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China
      • August 2, 2007
      • Elections started October 2006 and ended June 2007
      • 2,217 delegates elected from 38 electorates
        • 100 more candidates than the 16th National Congress
          • 6,000,000 more CPC members
          • Traditionally invite senior party members who have left their leading positions
      • They passed a qualification check
        • Made by the Delegate Qualifications Review Committee
          • http://www.china.org.cn/english/congress/228194.htm
          • Candidates must:
            • Observe and follow the CPC constitution
            • "Unswervingly follow the CPC's course, guidelines, and policies, as well as correctly comprehend and earnestly implement the decisions of the Central Committee"
            • Follow communist principles in their personal life; exceptional examples of socialism
            • They must connect with the overall populus and be welcomed by them.
      • Election Procedure
        • Recommendation and Nomination
          • Candidates are recommended by the local Party committees and are discussed in the local Congress
          • When all of the candidates' names are put forward, the standing committee of the local Party Committees debate and determine a final list of candidates.
  • Fraud accusations?
    • There have been no allegations of fraud as the elections are not open to the public. In the local elections there is a significant amount of vote-buying and intimidation. Elections are often rigged and ballot-stuffing is a significant problem.
  • Significant shifts in power that created change?
    • The 1982 constitution allowed for local elections to create villager committees.