China Pd. 3 Citizens

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  • Trust between citizens and government
    • Trust the Communist Party
      • No longer emanates from a blind trust of Communism
      • CCP plays on a strong sense of nationalism to unify the people.
      • Economic prosperity strengthens their popularity and legitimacy with the people.
    • Do not trust local governments due to the high level of corruption
      • Some legitimacy has been gained in that citizens now elect the local governments.
  • Do the citizens feel as if the CCP has their best interests at heart
      • The CCP gains its legitimacy through its citizens belief that the government is looking out for them.
      • Propaganda and a lack of exposure to conflicting ideas gives them great faith in the party.
      • Nationalism
        • When pro-Tibet protests took place in western nations during the beginning of the 2008 Olympics, many Chinese nationalists took to the Internet to defend their country.
        • Citizens consider themselves members of the G-2 along with America.
  • Learning about Politics
    • Local elections and schooling
      • Taught about the structure of the Communist Party and the government
    • The Media
      • Explains laws and policies
    • It is important to note that there is limited transparency. Much of what citizens learns is the reality the Party wants them to learn. There are some discrepancies between citizens' educations and the truth.
  • Impact of electronic and print media
    • Internet
      • "the Great Firewall"
      • Blocks web sites on anti-party subjects
        • Democracy is blocked
      • Volunteers and monitors
        • tens of thousands
        • Monitor blogs, chat forums, and email to ensure no one is discussing ideas that go against the Harmonious Society.
    • Media provides the version of the news that the CCP wishes to propagate.
      • State run from the 1940's to the 1980's
      • Daily, the government provides journalists with a list of topics they are not allowed to report on.
  • Propaganda
    • China has a Propaganda Department in its government and an External Propaganda Department dedicated to foreign propaganda.
    • 50 cent army
      • People are paid fifty cents for posting pro-CCP propaganda online.
  • What types of activities do citizens engage in that brings them in contact with the government?
    • China has a burgeoning civil society. During the 1990's China allowed Non-governmental Organizations to develop if they registered with and were approved by the government. Examples of these range from ping pong clubs to environmental organizations. None of these organizations challenge the government but they can deal with social problems. Jintao's created the idea of the Harmonious Society where citizens would be informed of policies about infrastructure and economic development so that they could give their opinions. This rarely works as plans are released at the last minute with limited details. (Ethel Woods)
    • 8% of over eighteens are members of the CCP
    • There are 70 million members of the Youth Leage
    • Interest groups cannot interfere with or influence the government
    • State Corporatism
      • State creates the organizations and many are headed by government officials.
      • Large organizations
        • People who fit within a certain subcategory are encouraged to join broad groups that reperesent their interests.
        • They may express their views within the set strict limitations.
  • Protests
    • At the local level
      • Have been reported in the news
      • No Tiananmen Sqaure style crackdown
    • Labor Strikes
      • Thousands have been reported


Collective Identities & Social Cleavages
Social Class ~ Urban-Rural
  • The primary cleavage in China is between the city and rural dwellers
  • 57% of citizens live in rural areas
    • Number used to be significantly higher before urbanization
  • Rural
    • Less income
    • Less education
      • Often abandon school for jobs in the cities
      • Decrease in number of rural secondary school students
    • Fewer career opportunities
    • Less exposure to new ideas and technologies
    • Most likely to protest (Farmers and peasants)
  • Urban
    • More income
    • More education
    • More career opportunities
    • Exposure to new ideas and technologies
  • Floating population
    • 100 million
    • Unemployed migrants who move from rural areas to urban centers seeking a better future
Ethnic Cleavages
  • Han Chinese (92%)
  • Uyghurs
    • Of Turkish ancestry and primarily Muslim
    • Wish to create an Islamic state independent of the Chinese government
    • Located near Afghanistan
    • Violence between the Hans and Uyghurs is present
    • Riots broke out in July of 2009 in the capital of the province
      • People were dissastisfied with the government's response to the deaths of two Uyghurs from earlier disruptions.
    • Located in the province of Xinjiang
  • Tibet
    • A formally autonomous nation that was conquered by the Chinese during the beginning of the PRC.
    • Primarily Buddhist
    • Look to their exiled leader the Dalai Lama
    • Many still seek independence from China
  • Xinjiang and Tibet make up 60% of China's land mass.
  • Diversity of language
    • Party wishes to make Mandarin the official language
    • Restriction of Cantonese
      • All public officials and media reporters must speak Mandarin even in areas where the people only understand Cantonese.
Religious Cleavages
  • 31.4% of Chinese adults are religious
  • CCP - officially aetheist
    • Constitution allows for freedom of religious beliefs
    • Only recognizes 5 religions
      • Buddhism
      • Taoism
      • Islam - 20 million
      • Catholicism
      • Protestantism
    • Groups that are not affiliated with these five religions are denied legal protection under Chinese law
  • 67.4% of Chinese people who are religious belong to one of the five recognized religions
  • 25% of party officials in local governments participate in some religious activity
  • Islam Uyghurs
    • Allowed less religious freedoms than other Chinese Muslims
    • Home of the East Turkestan Islamic Movement
      • An Islamic terrorist group
  • Tibetan Buddhists
    • 5 million residents - mostly Buddhist
    • Buddhist monks and Dalai Lama are key political dissidents
      • Arrange protests
      • Erupted into violence in March 2008
    • State monitors religious activity in Tibet
      • Monitors daily operations of major monasteries
      • Can deny anyone's petition to join the church as a religious figure
  • Falun Gong
    • Considered a cult by the CCP
    • Considered a threat because of its impressive ability to organize
      • 10,000 gathered in April of 1999 in a well-organized protest against an article criticizing the Falun Gong
    • Consequences
      • Arrest
      • Detention
      • Torture
      • Abuse
    • http://www.cfr.org/china/religion-china/p16272


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